HOMEWORK NUMBER TWO
Maynard
4.3
Show that if A, B ⊆ N are c.e. then A ∪ B and A ∩ B are c.e. To enumerate $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \cup B$, interlace the enumerations of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$. To enumerate $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \cap B$, enumerate $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$; for each element, enumerate $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ and emit the element only if it is present in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$.
4.6
Prove that TFAE: (1) A is computably enumerable; (2) A is the range of a partial computable function; (3) A = ∅ or A is the range of a total computable function
(1 ⇒ 3)
Take $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ c.e. and nonempty. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \bb N \to A$ be an enumeration of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is total, computable, and we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{ran}(f) = A$.
(3 ⇒ 2)
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A = \varnothing$ then let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f = \varnothing$. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is partial computable and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{ran}(f) = \varnothing$. If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \neq \varnothing$ then we’re already done.
(2 ⇒ 1)
Take $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ the range of some partial computable $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \bb N \to \bb N$. Compute an enumeration $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{ T_n \}$ of turing machines, where the $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n^\text{th}$ turing machine $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T_n$ computes $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(n)$. Now perform a countably-infinite sequence of steps, where each step is defined as follows. On step $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } k$, advance machine $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T_1$ by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } k$ steps, emitting a result if one is produced, then advance $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T_2$ by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } k{-1}$ steps, emitting a result if one is produced, so on, up through advancing $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T_k$ by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } 0$ steps (ie, doing nothing). On each input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ for which $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ converges, this algorithm will eventually emit $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(n)$. Hence, since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A = \text{ran}(f)$, this algorithm enumerates $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$.
4.10
Suppose A ⊆ N² is c.e. Then show that there is a partial computable function f : N → N such that f(x) is defined iff ∃y (x, y) ∈ A, and for every x ∈ dom(f), (x, f(x)) ∈ A. Given $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$, let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ be the algorithm accepting an input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ and enumerating through $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ until it finds a pair of the form $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (x, y) \in A$. (If no pair exists, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(n)\loops$)
4.12
Suppose A is an infinite c.e. set. Show that there is an infinite computable subset B ⊆ A. Take any infinite c.e. $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \subseteq \bb N$, and fix a computable enumeration $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E : \bb N \to A$ of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$. Define $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ to be the subset of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ consisting of values which, at their first occurence in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$, are larger than all previous elements of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ is computable — To find if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \in B$, enumerate through $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ until you find $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$, keeping track of the largest value seen so far. Then see whether $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ is larger.
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ is infinite — Any initial segment of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E_{\leq k}$ has a maximum value; call it $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m$. Since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ is infinite then it must contain a value $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ larger than $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m$, which $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ will eventually enumerate. By the time $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ emits $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$, either some other number(s) greater than $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m$ have been emitted, in which one of them is an element of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$, or not, in which case $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \in B$. In either case, there exists an element of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ outside of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E_{\leq k}$. Hence no initial segment of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ contains all of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$, so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ is infinite.
4.13
A c.e. set A is computable iff it has a computable enumeration that has a computable modulus.
(⇒)
Say $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ is computable. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ enumerate $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ by iterating through $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N$ in order and emitting an element $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \in \bb N$ when $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \in A$ holds. Then one modulus for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } E$ is $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m : n \mapsto n$, which is computable.
(⇐)
Say $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ has computable enumeration $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e : \bb N \to A$ with computable modulus $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m : \bb N \to \bb N$. Then to test if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in A$, test if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in \text{ran}(e \restriction m(a))$
4.15
Show that there is a partial computable function f : N → N with no total computable extension g ⊇ f . That is, there is no total computable function g : N → N so that if x ∈ dom(f), then g(x) = f(x). Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(n) = \varphi_n(n)$ be partial computable. Assume towards contradiction that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g$ is a total computable extension of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$. Now let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A = \{ n : g(n) = 0 \}$. Note that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ is a computable separation of the sets $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 = \{ \varphi_n(n) = 0 \} \hspace{{15pt}}\t{{and}}\hspace{{15pt}} A_1 = \{ \varphi_n(n) = 1 \}$ since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ contains all of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and none of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_1$. This is impossible, though, since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_1$ are c.i.
4.17
Suppose A, B ⊆ N are disjoint co-c.e. Then show there is a computable set C such that A ⊆ C and C ∩ B = ∅ First observe that c.e. sets have the reduction property; that is, for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A, B$ c.e. exists c.e. $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \subseteq A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0 \subseteq B$ disjoint and with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \cup B_0 = A \cup B$. This is true as follows. Take $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A, B$ c.e. We will, instead of producing two enumerations (one for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and one for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0$), produce only one enumeration for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (A_0 \times \{0\}) \cup (B_0 \times \{1\})$, which is equivalent. Do so as follows. Initialize $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl S$ to an empty set of naturals. Begin enumerating over $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ in tandem. Upon enumerating $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in A$, check if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in \cl S$; if not, add $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$ to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl S$ and emit $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (a, 0)$. Likewise, upon enumerating over $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b \in B$, check if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b \in \cl S$; if not, add $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b$ to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl S$ and emit $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (b, 1)$. Every element in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \cup B$ will eventually be reached and emitted, so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \cup B_0 = A \cup B$. Also, by tracking via $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl S$ what’s already been enumerated, we ensure that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0$ are disjoint. Done! Hence c.e. sets have the reduction property. What remains to show is that this entails that co-c.e. sets are computably separable. This is true as follows. Take $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A, B \subseteq \bb N$ disjoint and co-c.e. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol B$ are c.e., so due to the reduction property we have disjoint c.e. $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \subseteq \ol A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0 \subseteq \ol B$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \cup B_0 = \ol A \cup \ol B$. Since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B$ are disjoint then in fact $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol A \cup \ol B = \bb N$ and so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \cup B_0 = \bb N$; hence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0$ are complements of each other and both c.e., so they are both computable; thus $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0$ form a computable partition of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N$. Recall that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0 \subseteq \ol B$, which entails that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0 \cap B = \varnothing$; also, since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0 = \ol A_0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A_0 \subseteq \ol A$ then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A \subseteq B_0$. Hence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } B_0$ is a computable separation of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A, B$.
5.2
Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \mathrm{TOT} = \{ x : \varphi_x \t{ is total} \}$. Show that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{TOT} \nleq_m K$. (Solved with catalysis from Chase) We show that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol K \leq_m \text{TOT}$. Then if it were that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{TOT} \leq_m K$ we’d have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol K \leq_m K$, which is false. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ be a function taking an index $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$ and producing an index $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(a)$ for a program which takes an input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ and runs the computation $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_a(a)$ for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ steps, diverges if the computation halted, and converges if the computation did not halt. $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_a(a) \loops \iff \varphi_{f(a)} \t{ is total}$ie $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in \ol K \iff f(a) \in \text{TOT}$ which is a witness to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol K \leq_m \text{TOT}$
5.6
Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_x \halts$ denote that the Turing machine $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } x$ halts on the empty input, and let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \tup{\cdot, \cdot} : \bb N^2 \to \bb N$ denote some computable bijection from $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N^2$ to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N$. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K' = \{ x : \varphi_x(0)\halts \}$, and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K'' = \{ \tup{x, y} : \varphi_x(y)\halts \}$. Show that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K \equiv_1 K' \equiv_1 K''$
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K \leq_1 K'$:
Given any $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } x$, let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(x)$ compute the index for the turing machine computing $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \mapsto \varphi_x(x)$. Note that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is computable and that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_x(x)\halts \iff \varphi_{f(x)}(0)\halts$i.e., $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } x \in K \iff f(x) \in K'$ hence, $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is witness to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K \leq_1 K'$
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K' \leq_1 K''$:
Given any $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$, let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(a)$ first compute the index $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } i$ for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_a$; then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(a)$ emits $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \tup{ i, 0 }$. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_a(0)\halts \iff \varphi_{\pi_1(f(a))}(0)\halts$ Where $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \pi_1$ is the first-coordinate projection $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \tup{\bb N,\bb N} \to \bb N$. Then we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in K' \iff f(a) \in K''$
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K'' \leq_1 K$:
Given any natural $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \tup{x,y}$, let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(\tup{x,y})$ compute the index for the turing machine computing $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \mapsto \varphi_x(y)$. Then we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_x(y) \halts \iff \varphi_{f(\tup{x,y})}(f(\tup{x, y}))\halts$i.e., $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \tup{x,y} \in K'' \iff f(\tup{x,y}) \in K$
6.3
Show there is an e so that Wₑ = {e}; ie, so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{dom}(\varphi_e) = \{e\}$ Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(\varepsilon)$ be the total computable function taking some $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varepsilon$ to the index of a program which halts only on input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varepsilon$ and diverges otherwise. By the amazing recursion theorem there exists $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e$ so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e = \varphi_{f(e)}$, and by construction of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ we know that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{dom}(\varphi_{f(e)}) = \{e\}$. Done.
6.6
Show there is no infinite c.e. set of minimal indices. Assume for contradiction we had some infinite c.e. set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ of minimal indices. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{succ}$ be a function which accepts some input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ and produces any $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in A$ greater than $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$; note $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{succ}$ is total because $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$ is infinite. Then by the recursion theorem we know for some $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e$ that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e = \varphi_{\text{succ}(e)}$. Hence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{succ}(e)$ is not minimal, and yet by definition of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{succ}$ we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{succ}(e) \in A$. Contradiction.