Ch1.1 HW
Maynard
1.1.i
(i) Take a morphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to y$ and assume existence of $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g, h : y \to x$ so that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g f = 1_x$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f h = 1_y$. Show that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = h$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is an isomorphism Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f, g, h$. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = g 1_y = g (f h) = (g f) h = 1_x h = h$. Since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g f = 1_x$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f h = 1_y$ then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = h$ is a two-sided inverse for $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is an isomorphism.
(ii) Show that a morphism can have at most one inverse Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ and assume that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g,h$ are both two-sided inverses for $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = g(f h) = (g f)h = h$.
1.1.ii
Let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ be a category. Show that the restriction of $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ to only isomorphisms produces a subcategory. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$, and let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C'$ be the category with the same objects as $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ but containing only isomorphisms. Let’s check that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C'$ satsifies the subcategory requirements:
All domains and codomains are contained: yes, since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \text{Ob}(C') = \text{Ob}(C)$ we have not lost any objects
Identities are retained: yes, since identities are isomorphisms
Composition is admitted: yes, since the composition of two isomorphisms in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ produces another isomorphism in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$. We haven’t shown this in class, so here’s a proof. Take isomorphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : a \to b$, $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g : b \to c$. We want to show that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g f$ is an isomorphism; I claim it has the two-sided inverse $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^{{-1}}g^{{-1}}$:
% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \begin{align*} & (f^{-1}g^{-1})(gf) \\&= f^{-1}g^{-1}gf \\&= f^{-1}f \\&= 1_a \end{align*}
% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \begin{align*} & (gf)(f^{-1}g^{-1}) \\&= gff^{-1}g^{-1} \\&= gg^{-1} \\&= 1_c \end{align*}
1.1.iii
Show that if $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ is a category and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} c \in C$, then:
(i) Exists a category whose objects $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : c \to x$ are $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphisms with domain $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} c$ and whose morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} m : (f : c \to x) \to (g : c \to y)$ are $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} x \to y$ so that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = m f$ Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C, c$. Denote by $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$ those morphisms described in the problem statement organized as described. We must show that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$ forms a category.
Does composition associate? Well, we haven’t defined composition in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$. Let’s try inheriting it from $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$. This only makes sense if $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \circ_C$ is closed in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$, which we have yet to show. If it is, then we get associativity for free, since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \circ_C$ is associative. So then, is $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \circ_C$ closed in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$? Yes: take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$-morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} q : f \to g$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} r : g \to h$. Then we know $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = q f$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} h = r g$. By substitution on $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ we get that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} h = r(q f)$ and so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} h = (r q)f$, meaning that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} r q : f \to h$ is indeed an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$-morphism
Are there identities? Yes: let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ be an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$-object, meaning it’s a $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : c \to x$ for some $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} x$. Note that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 1_x$ is an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$-morphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f \to f$, since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = 1_x f$. Since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$ inherits composition from $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$, then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 1_x$ acts as an identity.
(ii) Exists a category whose objects $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to c$ are $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphisms with codomain $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} c$ and whose morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} m : (f : x \to c) \to (g : y \to c)$ are $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} x \to y$ so that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = g m$ ,,, something something duality. But this category is neither $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M^\text{op}$ nor the result of performing the same construction as $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} M$ but over $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C^\text{op}$. ☹️. Alas Let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$ be our category in question. We can perform almost the exact same construction as before, with the following modifications:
The proof that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \circ_C$ is closed in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$ goes as follows. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$-morphisms $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} q : f \to g$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} r : g \to h$. Then we know $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = g q$ and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = h r$. By substitution on $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ we get $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = (h r)q$ and so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = h(r q)$. Hence $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} r q$ is an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$-morphism, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \circ_C$ is closed in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$.
The justification that identities exist goes as follows. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$-object. Then it’s a $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$-morphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to c$ for some $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} x$. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 1_x$ is an $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$-morphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f \to f$ since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f = f1_x$. Since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} N$ inherits composition from $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$, then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 1_x$ acts as an identity.
1.2.ii
(i) Show the following: $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to y$ is a split epimorphism in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ iff for all $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} c \in C$ have that post-composition $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star : C(c, x) \to C(c, y)$ is surjective
(⇒)
Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to y$ a split epimorphism and $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g' : c \to y$. We show that exists $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g : c \to x$ such that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star(g) = g'$, establishing that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star$ is surjective. Let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^{{-1}}$ denote the right-inverse of $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$, presumed to exist since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is a split epimorphism, and let $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = f^{{-1}} \circ g'$. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star(g) = f \circ g = f \circ f^{{-1}} \circ g' = g'$; done.
(⇐)
Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : x \to y$ such that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star$ is surjective. Then we know exists some $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ such that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star(g) = 1_y$. By applying the definition of $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f_\star$ we get that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f \circ g = 1_y$; ie, $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ is a right-inverse for $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ and hence $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is split epic.
(ii) Argue by duality that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is a split monomorphism in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ if and only if for all $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} c \in C$ have that pre-composition $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\star : C(y, c) \to C(x, c)$ is surjective This follows from the following two equivalences:
$% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is split monic in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ iff $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is split epic in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C^\text{op}$. A left-inverse $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ for $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is characterized by $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g f = 1$, which is equivalent to $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op} g^\text{op} = 1$, which characterizes a right-inverse for $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ (ie, $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ being split epic)
Pre-composition by $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$ is the same as post-composition by $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C^\text{op}$: % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \begin{align*} & (f^\star(g))^\text{op} \\&= (g f)^\text{op} \\&= f^\text{op} g^\text{op} \\&= (f^\text{op})_\star(g^\text{op}) \end{align*} Hence $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} (f^\text{op})_\star = -^\t{\text{op}} \circ f^\star$. (I’m not sure if $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} -^\text{op} \circ f^\star$ is a ‘legal’ expression, since I’m not sure what category it would lie in. Some kind of disjoint union / coproduct of categories? Anyway, I’m pretty sure the logic below stands regardless, but treating $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} -^\text{op} \circ f^\star$ as ‘valid’ simplifies its presentation)
To pull this together and conclude that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is split monic iff $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\star$ is surjective, we have the following. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ a split monomorphism in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C$; then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is split epic in $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} C^\text{op}$, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} (f^\text{op})_\star$ is surjective, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} -^\text{op} \circ f^\star$ is, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\star$ must be (since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} -^\text{op}$ is one-to-one-and-onto). For the other direction, take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ such that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\star$ is surjective; then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} -^\text{op} \circ f^\star$ must be, and this is just $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} (f^\text{op})_\star$; since this is surjective then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is split epic, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is split monic.
1.2.iv
What are the monomorphisms in the category of fields? As it turns out, all of the morphisms are monomorphisms. All field homomorphisms are injective, and their injectivity entails monicity.
Part 1:
All field homomorphisms are either trivial or injective (This proof is modified from math.stackexchange.com/a/2402008) Say a field homomorphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : A \to B$ is trivial if it is the constant function $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(x) = 0_B$. A sufficient condition for this is that it maps two distinct values $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} a_1, a_2 \in A$ to $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 0_B$: say that’s the case, and WLOG assume $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} a_1$ is not $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 0_A$ (since one of $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} a_1, a_2$ must not be); then for any $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} a \in A$ we have $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(a) = f(a a_1 a_1^{-1}) = f(a a_1^{-1}) f(a_1) = f(a a_1^{-1}) 0_B = 0_B$. Now take a homomorphism $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : A \to B$ which is not trivial. Since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is a homomorphism, we know for all $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} a, b \in A$ that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(b - a) = f(b) - f(a)$ Say that $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(b) = f(a)$. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(b) - f(a)$ is $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 0_B$, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f(b - a)$ is $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} 0_A$ (since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is nontrivial) so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} b = a$. Hence $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is injective.
Part 2:
All injective field homomorphisms are monomorphic. Say $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f : A \to B$ is an injective field homomorphism and call its left-inverse $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^{-1}$. Also say $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g, h : Z \to A$ are field homomorphisms with $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f g = f h$. Then left-compose both sides by $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^{-1}$ to get $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^{-1} f g = f^{-1} f h$; ie, $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g = h$.
1.2.vi
(i) Prove that a morphism that is both a monomorphism and a split epimorphism is necessarily an isomorphism. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ both monic and split epic. Since $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is split epic, then it has a right-inverse; call it $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$: $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} fg = 1$Then: % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} \begin{align*} f &= f \\ (fg)f &= f1 && g \t{ is a right-inverse of } f \\ f(gf) &= f1 \\ gf &= 1 && f \t{ monomorphic} \end{align*}
(ii) Argue by duality that a split monomorphism that is an epimorphism is also an isomorphism. Take $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ both epic and split monic. Then $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is monic, due to $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ being epic, and also $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is split epic, since a left-inverse $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g$ to $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ becomes a right-inverse $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} g^\text{op}$ to $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$. Hence by 1.2.vi(i) $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f^\text{op}$ is an isomorphism, so $% shorthands \newcommand{\cl}{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}{ \mathsf{#1} } % category names \newcommand{\cat}{{ \sf{#1} }} % more shorthands \newcommand{\floor}{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } % reverse-order composition %\newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } \newcommand{\then}{ {\scriptsize\ \rhd\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" \newcommand{\pre}{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } % good enough definition of yoneda \newcommand{\yo}{よ} f$ is as well.