HW III
6.8
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \bb N^2 \to \bb N$ is a computable function, then there is a computable injection $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n : \bb N \to \bb N$ such that for all $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } y$ we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{n(y)} = \varphi_{f(n(y),y)}$ Unclear to me how to do this. Seems like one would want to use the recursion theorem, but that doesn’t produce a computable mapping; it’s just a $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \forall \exists$-sentence. Also, it requires $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ be total.
6.9
Show that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K$ is not an index set Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ be such that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{f(e)}(n) = \begin{cases} \text{diverge} && n = e \\ 0 && n \neq e \end{cases}$ Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{f(a)}(b)\halts \iff a=b$. And $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is total computable so by the recursion theorem we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e = \varphi_{f(e)}$. As such, $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e(e)\halts$ and so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e \in K$. By the padding lemma exists $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e' \neq e$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{e'} = \varphi_e$. Since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e' \neq e$ then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{e'}(e') \loops$ and hence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e' \notin K$. So $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e, e'$ witness that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } K$ is not an index set
6.12
Suppose $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (\psi_n)_{n \in \bb N}$ is an acceptable numbering. Show there is an e ∈ N so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_e = \varphi_e$. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \bb N \to \bb N$ bijective witness the fact that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ is acceptable, so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{f(e)} = \psi_e$. By Rogers’ exists some $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{f(e)} = \varphi_e$ and hence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e = \psi_e$.
6.13
Show that there is a computable strictly increasing sequence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e_0 < e_1 < \dots$ so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{dom}(\varphi_{e_n}) = \{e_{n+1}\}$ We work with an indexing $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ which admits a “read own instruction” program; let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ bijective take a $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$-index to a $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi$-index. Define $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (d_n)$ as follows.
Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_0$ be so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_{d_0}$ first executes the instruction which reads off its own $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$-index. Next it repeatedly appends null operations to the program representation $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_0$ until it produces a $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$-index $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } r$ for which $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(r) > f(d_0)$ (which must eventually happen since $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(d_0)$ is finite). Finally the program takes an input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$ and halts iff $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a = f(r)$.
Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_{n+1}$ be $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f^{{-1}}(u(\text{dom}(\psi_{d_n})))$ where $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } u(\{a\}) = a$. This well-defined since by construction each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{d_n}$ has exactly one element in its domain. This is computable because $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{dom}(\psi_{d_n})$ is c.e. due to being the domain of a p.c. function.
Note that since all programs $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{d_n\}$ differ from $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_0$ only by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$-noop instructions, then all programs do the same thing up the semantics given by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$. Namely, the program $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_n$ does nothing but halt on input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } d_{n+1}$. Now define $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (e_n)$ as $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e_n = f(d_n)$. Since we ensured that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(d_n) < f(d_{n+1})$ always, then we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } e_n < e_{n+1}$ always. And also we get that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{dom}(\varphi_{e_n}) = \text{dom}(\psi_{f^{{-1}}(e_n)}) = \text{dom}(\psi_{f^{{-1}}(f(d_n))}) = \text{dom}(\psi_{d_n}) = \{ f(d_{n+1}) \} = \{ e_{n+1} \}$ as desired.
6.14
Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0, f_1 : \bb N \to \bb N$ be computable functions so that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } x \mapsto (f_0(x), f_1(x))$ is a computable bijection. Define $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n$ as $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m) = \begin{cases} \varphi_{f_1(n)}(m) & m > 0 \\{} \text{undefined} & m = 0 \land f_0(n) = 0 \\ f_0(n) - 1 & m = 0 \land f_0(n) > 0 \end{cases}$ Show that:
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bigcup_n \{ \psi_n \}$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bigcup_n \{ \varphi_n \}$ are equal
($%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \subseteq$)
Definitely true that each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_e$ has an index in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi$
($%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \supseteq$)
Take some $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e$. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ be such that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n) = \begin{cases} \varphi_e(0)+1 & \varphi_e(0)\halts \\ 0 & \varphi_e(0)\loops \end{cases}$and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_1(n) = e$ I claim that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n = \varphi_e$. Consider how each acts on some input $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m$:
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m = 0$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m)$ diverges iff $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n) = 0$ iff $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e(0)$ diverges. And if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_e(0)$ converges then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n) = \varphi_e(0)+1$ and so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m) = \varphi_e(0)+{1-1}$. Hence either way $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m) = \varphi_e(m)$.
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m \neq 0$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m) = \varphi_{f_1(n)}(m) = \varphi_e(m)$.
The function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (n, m) \mapsto \psi_n(m)$ is partial computable This is kind of true just by observation: to compute $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi_n(m)$ compute $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n)$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_1(n)$, which we’ve assumed is possible; then compare $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } m$ against $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } 0$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n)$ against $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } 0$ and depending on the results return $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_{f_1(n)}(m)$ or $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f_0(n){-1}$ or diverge, all of which are computable operations.
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ is not an acceptable numbering Say it were. Then we’d have some computable bijection $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \bb N \to \bb N$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_n = \psi_{f(n)}$. Then we have $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \varphi_n(0) \halts \iff \psi_{f(n)}(0)\halts \iff f_0(f(n)) = 0$ which would solve the halting problem.
7.4
Show:
A finite set of Wang tiles can tile the infinite plane iff for every $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n > 0$, this set of Wang tiles can tile an $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \times n$ square.
(⇒)
Trivial
(⇐)
We draw a correspondence between tiling problems and first-order axiom sets; the desired result will fall out of compactness of first-order logic. Let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl L$ be a language consisting of a constant symbol for each value in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N$ as well as a function symbol $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{color}$ of arity 3. Additionally, fix $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (\text{up}, \text{right}, \text{down}, \text{left}) = (0, 1, 2, 3)$ Given a set of wang tiles $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$ and a subset $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S \subseteq \bb N^2$ of cells we want to tile, we form a set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi(T, S)$ of axioms as follows:
For each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (a, a') \in \bb N^2$ we include the axiom $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \neq a'$ to ensure that tilings do not conflate two colors or coordinates
For each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (d, \ol d, \Delta n, \Delta m) \in \{ (\text{up}, \text{down}, 0, 1), (\text{right}, \text{left}, 1, 0) \}$ and each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (n, m) \in \bb N^2$ we include the axiom $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{color}(n, m, d) = \text{color}(n + \Delta n, m + \Delta m, \ol d)$ This demands that tilings are valid
For each tile $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t \in T$, let $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{up}(t), \text{right}(t), \text{down}(t), \text{left}(t)$ denote the colors of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t$, which we assume to be natural numbers. For each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (n, m) \in S$ we include the axiom %% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bigvee_{t \in T} \left( \begin{align*} \t{color}(n, m, \t{up}) &= \t{up}(t) \\ \land\ \t{color}(n, m, \t{right}) &= \t{right}(t) \\ \land\ \t{color}(n, m, \t{down}) &= \t{down}(t) \\ \land\ \t{color}(n, m, \t{left}) &= \t{left}(t) \end{align*} \right) This is admissable because $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$ is finite. These axioms ensure that we produce only tilings consisting of tiles from $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$. Note that we only constrain coordinates from $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S$. The rest of the plane may easily be tiled by matching the edge of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S$ and choosing some color to uniformly fill the rest of the plane.
Our axiom set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi = \Xi(T, S)$ contains only quantifier-free formulas, which is fun. Anyway, I claim that by construction $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi$ has a model if and only if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S \subseteq \bb N$ can be tiled by $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$. A model $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \cl M$ for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi$ will include an interpretation $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{color}^\cl M$ which will give the actual tiling; the axioms of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi$ will ensure that the tiling is valid. Then compactness gives us what we want. Say we have a tile set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$ which can tile any square in $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \bb N^2$. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi(T, \bb N)$ is finitely satisfiable, because any finite set of axioms demands at most a valid tiling up over some finite $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S \subseteq \bb N^2$, which is satisfied by a tiling for some enclosing square. Hence by compactness $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Xi(T, \bb N)$ is satisfiable.
Suppose $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$ is a finite set of Wang tiles, and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t_0 \in T$. Then there is a tiling of the infinite plane which includes $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t_0$ iff for all $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n > 0$ we have a tiling of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } [-n,n] \times [-n,n]$ with $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t_0$ as the origin. Same proof as for the previous problem, but we include an axiom demanding that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{color}(0, 0, d)$ matches $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small `{#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } t_0$