Propositional Logic
Definition
Propositional logic, also called sentential logic or order-zero logic, is a logical system of statements.
Grammar, WFFs
Given a set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$ of propositional variables, the set of well-formed formulas (WFFs) over $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$ is generated by: $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } P, Q \mapsto v \mid \top \mid \bot \mid \neg P \mid (P \lor Q) \mid (P \land Q) \mid (P \to Q)$ Where $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v \in V$. Note that in order for this generation to be free (ie, for the resulting string to have a unique generation path), the parentheses are mandatory. However, in practice, they are often omitted; the string $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } P \land Q \to R$ is disambiguated to either $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (P \land Q) \to R$ or $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } P \land (Q \to R)$ by convention or context.
Truth Assignment
For any set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$ of variables and a truth-assignment function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v : V \to \{ T, F \}$, we can lift it to a truth evaluation function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v : \text{WFF}(V) \to \{ T, F \}$ over the set of WFFs with variables from $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$. This is done recursively over the grammar of propositional logic as follows. Given $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ a WFF, we define $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi)$ as follows:
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = a \in V$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = v(a)$
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = \top$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = \bot$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = F$
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = \neg \psi_1$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$ iff $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\psi) = F$
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = \psi_1 \lor \psi_2$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$ iff either $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\psi_1) = T$ or $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\psi_2) = T$
If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi = \psi_1 \land \psi_2$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$ iff both $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\psi_1) = T$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\psi_2) = T$
Tautologies
We call a WFF $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ over variable set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$ a tautology if for every variable assignment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v : V \to \{ T, F \}$ we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$.
Satisfy
We say that:
a truth-assignment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v$ satisfies a WFF $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$
a truth-assignment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v$ satisfies a set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Phi$ of WFFs if for each $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi \in \Phi$ we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$
We may say “models” or “is a model of” instead of “satisfies”
Tautological Implication
For a sentence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ and set of sentences $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Phi$, we say that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Phi$ tautologically implies $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ and write $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Phi \vDash \psi$ if for every truth-assignment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v$ satisfying $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \Phi$, we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v$ also satisfies $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$. For two sentences $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$, we say $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi \vDash \psi$ to mean $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{\phi\} \vDash \psi$. If $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{\phi\} \vDash \psi$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{\psi\} \vDash \phi$, we say that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \psi$ are tautologically equivalent.
Completeness
Propositional logic is said to be complete, which means essentially that the rules we have so far are enough to express “everything”. For instance, we may think about adding a new kind of sentence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \#(P, R, Q)$ which is true if and only if a majority of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } P$, $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } Q$, and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } R$ are true. But there’s no need to add anything new to do this! Instead of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \#(P, R, Q)$ we can write $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } (P \land R) \lor (R \land Q) \lor (P \land Q)$ Which is true if and only if a majority of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } P$, $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } Q$, and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } R$ are true. Completeness says that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \#$ is not a special case; no matter what we may think of adding, we already have it.
Rigorously, completeness says the following. Take:
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n \in \bb N$
an $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$-ary boolean function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b : \{T,F\}^n\to\{T,F\}$
an ordered set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V = \{V_k\}$ of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$ variables
Then exists a sentence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi \in \text{WFF}(V)$ such that for each truth-assignment function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v : V \to \{T,F\}$, we have that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \ol v(\phi) = T$ if and only if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b(v(v_1), v(v_2), \dots, v(v_n)) = T$. Conceptually, this means that for any $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } n$-ary boolean function $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b$, we can create a sentence $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ which is true exactly according to $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b$; or, alternatively, we can say $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \phi$ is a kind of a representation or encoding of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b$. Another interpretation is that this means that the lanugage $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \{\land, \lor, \neg, \to, \dots\}$ has “all the connectives we need”—if you add a new connective, no formula can be written with that connective which could not already have been written. Proof sketch: express $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } b$ as a disjunction of conjunctions of possible-negations over $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$.
Compactness
Propositional logic exhibits a theorem called compactness. The statement of compactness is as follows. Take $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$ a set of variables and $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T \subseteq \text{WFF}(V)$ a set of propositional statements over $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } V$. Then if for every finite $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S \subseteq T$ exists a truth-assigment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v_S$ satisfying $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } S$, then exists a truth-assignment $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } v$ satisfying $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } \newcommand{\To}{ \Rightarrow } % draw a box outlining some math \newcommand{\box}[1]{ \fbox{ #1 } } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) %\newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathrel{↤} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % extra long right-arrows \newcommand{\X}{-\!\!\!-\!\!\!} \newcommand{\xlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\xxxlongrightarrow}{ \mathop{ \, \X\X\X\longrightarrow \, } } \newcommand{\takenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\rightarrow} } \newcommand{\longtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\longrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxlongrightarrow} } \newcommand{\xxxlongtakenby}[1]{ \overset{#1}{\xxxlongrightarrow} } % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } T$. No proof right now.