Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem
Statement
Given a finite group $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } G$ acting on a finite set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } A$, we have for any $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a \in A$ that the following are equivalent:
$%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \lvert \text{orbit}(a) \rvert$, the number of elements in the orbit of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$
The number of left cosets of the stabilizer $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{stab}(a)$ of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$, which is $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \lvert G \rvert \cdot \lvert \text{stab}(a) \rvert ^{-1}$
Proof
The proof will proceed by establishing a bijection between elements of the orbit of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$ and left cosets of the stabilizer of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a$. Once a bijection is shown to exist, that means the two sets in question are of equal cardinality. Define this bijection $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f : \{ g\ \text{stab}(a) : g \in G \} \to \text{orbit}(a)$ as $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(g\ \text{stab}(a)) = g \bull a$ Note that multiple values of $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g$ may give rise to the same value for $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g\ \text{stab}(a)$, meaning we need to show this mapping is well-defined. Then we need to show that it’s bijective, which we will do by showing both injectivity and surjectivity. Well-definedness. We can show $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is well-defined by proving that if $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g_1\ \text{stab}(a) = g_2\ \text{stab}(a)$ for given $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g_1, g_2 \in G$, then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(g_1\ \text{stab}(a)) = f(g_2\ \text{stab}(a))$ %% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \begin{align*} g_1\ \text{stab}(a) &= g_2\ \text{stab}(a) \\ g_1^{-1}g_2 &\in \text{stab}(a) && \text{propery of cosets} \\ (g_1^{-1}g_2) \bull a &= a && \text{definition of stabilizer} \\ g_2 \bull a &= g_1 \bull a && \text{apply (x \mapsto g_1 \bull x) to both sides} \end{align*} Thus $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is well-defined. Injectivity. We show that $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(x) = f(y)$ implies $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } x = y$ %% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \begin{align*} g_1 \bull a &= g_2 \bull a \\ a &= g_1^{-1}g_2 \bull a && \text{apply (x \mapsto g_1^{-1} \bull x) to both sides} \\ g_1^{-1}g_2 &\in \text{stab}(a) && \text{definition of stabilizer} \\ g_1\ \text{stab}(a) &= g_2\ \text{stab}(a) && \text{property of cosets} \end{align*} Surjectivity. Take some $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } o \in \text{orbit}(a)$. Then by the definition of orbits there exists a $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g_0 \in G$ where $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } g_0 \bull a = o$. Then $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f(g_0\ \text{stab}(a)) = g_0 \bull a = o$. Thus every $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } o$ has a preimage, so $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } f$ is surjective.
Examples
Take the group $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } G = \mathbb Z / 4$—the integers modulo 4—acting on the set $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \mathbf 2^4$ of length-4 bitstrings by rotation (so e.g. $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } 1 \bull 1000 = 0100$). Now consider the specific element $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } a = 1010 \in A$. Then we have: $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small {#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \text{stab}(a) = \{ 0, 2 \} \hspace{40pt} \text{orbit}(a) = \{ 1010, 0101 \}$ Meaning $%% general %% % shorthands \newcommand{\cl}[1]{ \mathcal{#1} } \newcommand{\sc}[1]{ \mathscr{#1} } \newcommand{\bb}[1]{ \mathbb{#1} } \newcommand{\fk}[1]{ \mathfrak{#1} } \renewcommand{\bf}[1]{ \mathbf{#1} } \renewcommand{\sf}[1]{ \mathsf{#1} } \renewcommand{\rm}[1]{ \mathrm{#1} } \newcommand{\floor}[1]{ { \lfloor {#1} \rfloor } } \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{ { \lceil {#1} \rceil } } \newcommand{\ol}[1]{ \overline{#1} } \newcommand{\t}[1]{ \text{#1} } \newcommand{\norm}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % norm/magnitude (REMOVE) \newcommand{\mag}[1]{ { \left\lvert {#1} \right\rvert } } % magnitude \newcommand{\smag}[1]{ { \lvert {#1} \rvert } } % short mag \newcommand{\card}{ \t{cd} } % cardinality \newcommand{\dcup}{ \sqcup } % disjoint untion \newcommand{\tup}[1]{ \langle {#1} \rangle } % tuples \newcommand{\tl}{ \tilde } \newcommand{\wt}{ \widetilde } % f \onall X = { f(x) : x ∈ X } \newcommand{\onall}[1]{ { \llbracket {#1} \rrbracket } } % shorthands: various brackets \newcommand{\tpar}[1]{ \left( {#1} \right) } % "tall parens" \newcommand{\tbrak}[1]{ \left[ {#1} \right] } % "tall brackets" \newcommand{\tbrac}[1]{ \left\{ {#1} \right\} } % "tall braces" % reverse \mapsto (FIXME: make better) \newcommand{\mapsfrom}{ \mathop{\leftarrow\!\mid} } % reverse-order composition \newcommand{\then}{ \operatorname{\ ;\ } } % Like f' represents "f after modification", \pre{f} % represents "f before modification" % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\pre}[1]{{ \small `{#1} }} % hook arrows \newcommand{\injects}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\embeds}{ \hookrightarrow } \newcommand{\surjects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\projects}{ \twoheadrightarrow } \newcommand{\id}{ \,\mathrm d } % integration d % derivatives: use {\ddn n x y} for (dy/dx) \newcommand{\ddn}[3]{ \frac{ {\mathrm d}^{#1} {#2} }{ {\mathrm d} {#3}^{#1} } } % nth derivative \newcommand{\dd}{ \ddn{} } % first derivative \newcommand{\d}{ \dd{} } % first derivative (no numerator) \newcommand{\dn}[1]{ \ddn{#1}{} } % nth derivative (no numerator) % derivatives: use {\D n x y} for (∂_x y) \newcommand{\Dn}[2]{ \partial^{#1}_{#2} } \newcommand{\D}{ \Dn{} } % no power \newcommand{\ig}[2]{ \int {#2} \, \mathrm d {#1} } % first integral %% category theory %% % category names \newcommand{\cat}[1]{{ \sf{#1} }} % yoneda embedding \newcommand{\yo}{よ} % represents an anonymous parameter % eg. f(\apar) usually denotes the function x \mapsto f(x) % TODO: remove this? \newcommand{\apar}{ {-} } %% computability %% % turing machines \newcommand{\halts}{ {\downarrow} } \newcommand{\loops}{ {\uparrow} } \lvert \text{orbit}(a) \rvert = 2 = 4 \cdot \frac 12 = \lvert G \rvert \cdot \lvert \text{stab}(a) \rvert^{-1}$ Which matches the theorem statement